The terms “aggression”, “violence” and “bullying” are interconnected concepts frequently heard in everyday life. The definition of these concepts may differ depending on whether the focus is on “the action” or “the intention”. For one action to be described as bullying, it is not sufficient that it carries “aggression”. There must be “unequal power relationship between parties”, it must be “frequently occurring action”, and “intentional”. (Olweus, 1993;1994;1994)
The consequences of school bullying are severe. The bullied children(victim) go through emotions such as disliking school, fear, anxiety and they may develop behavioural problems and be absent from the school just to avoid bullying and therefore it results in academic failure. The bullies may use offensive tools (gun and knife etc.) to protect themselves.
Pişkin (2002) defines bullying as “type of aggression resulting in one or more students constantly intimidating less powerful children intentionally and regularly, being in a state where the victim cannot protect herself/himself”. School bullying can vary from “physical” bullying such as kicking, slapping, pushing, and pulling to “verbal” bullying such as mocking, japing, annoying, nicknaming, saying degrading words; it also includes “indirect” bullying such as excluding from the group and “behavioural” bullying such as seizing one’s money and belongings, threatening them to seize one’s money and belongings, and damage one’s belongings. According to Olweus (1995), one of the foremost names of the subject, for one student to be bullied or become a victim, he/she has to be subjected to these actions by one or more students in a long-term on a regular basis. The distinctive feature of bullying is that there should be “unequal or unbalanced power relationship between the parties”.
It can be seen that bullying behaviours are categorized on different basis. Most of the relative studies have focused on the features of bullies and victims in the schools, types of bullying and its currency. School or peer bullying studies carried out with different demographic and psychological derivatives on different school levels, has formed a great accumulation of knowledge for Turkey. There are many national and international studies oriented to measure the school and peer bullying and to prevent bullying in the schools. Atik &Güneri, 2012; Atik, Özmen, & Kemer, 2012; Atik & Güneri 2013; Doğan, 2010; Doğan- in progress; Nazır &Pişkin, 2015; Pişkin, 2002; Pişkin and his friends, 2012).
Atik, G., & Yerin Güneri, O. (2013). Bullying and victimization: Predictive role of individual, parental, and academic factors,School Psychology International, 34(6), 658-673. doi: 10.1177/0143034313479699 Atik, G., & Yerin Güneri, O. (2012). California Bullying Victimization Scale: Validity and reliability evidence for the Turkish middle school children. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 1237-1241. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.281 Atik, G., Özmen, O., & Kemer, G. (2012). Bullying and submissive behavior. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal, 45(1), 191-208. doi: 10.1501/Egifak_0000001241 Doğan, A. (2010). Examining the peer bullying in the framework of Ecological Systems Model. Mental Health of Child and Adolesence, 17 (3), 149-162. Doğan, A. ve ark. Evidence Based Bullying Prevention in Turkey: Implementation and Evaluation of the ViSC Social Competence Program (September 2014 – Still in process) (Jacobs Foundation, Switzerland) Nazir, T. ve Pişkin, M. (2015). School Bullying: Effecting Childs Mental Health. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 2, 4, 130-135. Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do? Oxford: Blackwell. Olweus, D. (1994). Annotation: Bullying at school: Basic facts and effects